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4 May 2022

Pinocchio in the World: Visual Translations

Carlo Collodi’s Le avventure di Pinocchio is the most translated Italian book in the world and is probably also the most translated literary work in the world. You can find a description of the history of this book’s success all over the world here:

The exhibition below, inevitably, provides a very partial view of this history. It does, however, in addition to highlighting how there have been virtually no periods of interruption in the translations of this book since its first translation (into English by Mary Alice Murray, 1892), offer a colourful panorama of the enormous variety of approaches that have been taken to this kaleidoscopic work. Indeed, Pinocchio has been absorbed into all the different countries and languages sometimes as a story for children, sometimes a puppet play, an educational journey, a picaresque tale, a social novel… It is basically impossible to know exactly how many unabridged translations of Pinocchio there are in every language (with many translations coming from intermediary languages rather than Italian), but the number is growing all the time. The commercial success of the many transpositions of this story, which is, at the same time, both archetypical and extremely original – making Pinocchio, in the 140 years since his birth, an intimate figure in the popular imagination of every country – has often resulted in academic reinterpretations, with scholarly introductions and critical analyses, but also linguistic and meta-literary divertissements, such as the versions in classical Latin or Esperanto, and the large number of versions in dialect (and not just Italian dialects), of which we provide a couple of examples – the result of the personal need of translators to engage in and share with readers a confidential channel of appropriation of the text. And while most of these versions have been produced by commercial publishing houses, there are more than a few cases in which the idea came instead from institutional bodies that promote the dissemination of the book because of its emblematic educational value. Nevertheless, the challenge of creating a new version of Pinocchio has not just involved endless numbers of translators of every language in the world, it has also involved hundreds and hundreds of foreign illustrators, who have joined the long line of Italian illustrators, in their desire to create their own personal vision of Collodi’s masterpiece, to be added to new or already publish translations. Indeed, sometimes the success of a translation and an illustration has meant that either the translation or the illustration has been used separately in new editions, in different parts of the world and different periods. From this point of view, the greatest success has, of course, been enjoyed by the great Italian illustrators, both classic early illustrators – Enrico Mazzanti, Carlo Chiostri and Attilio Mussino – and new masters like Roberto Innocenti. All these artists rooted their illustrations in Italy, while also managing to highlight the universality that lies at the very heart of the book. There are also many well-known artists among the foreign illustrators for whom depicting scenes from Le avventure di Pinocchio has been a test and acknowledgement of their artistic skill.

The book covers in this exhibition have been arranged in chronological order (as regards the first edition of a specific translation, even when the cover shown refers to a slightly later edition), and go from country to country and language to language, to try and give an idea – at least for the few periods shown here – of the speed and inexorable nature of Pinocchio’s journey around the world.


Mario Casari, “La Sapienza” University, Rome

Title: Story of a Puppet or the Adventures of Pinocchio

Year: 1892

Publisher London, T. Fisher Unwin, translated into English by Mary Alice Murray, ill. by Enrico Mazzanti

Title: Pinocchio. The Adventures of a Marionette

Year: 1904 (1st ed. 1901)

Publisher Boston, Ginn & Co., translated into English by Walter S. Cramp, ill. by Charles Copeland

Title: Les Aventures de Pinocchio

Year: 1902

Publisher Paris, Librairie Fischbacher, translated into French by Emilio Treves, ill. by Enrico Mazzanti e Giuseppe Magni

Title: Pinocchios äfventyr: berättelse om en marionett

Year: 1904

Publisher Helsinki, Helios, translated into Swedish by Aline Pipping, ill. by Enrico Mazzanti

Title: Pinokkio. Priključenija derevjannogo mal‘čika

Year: 1908 (1st ed.)

Publisher St Petersburg-Moscow, M. O. Vol’f, translated into Russian by Kamill Danini (Camillo Dagnini), ill. by Enrico Mazzanti and Giuseppe Magni,

Title: Les Aventures de Pinokio

Year: 1912 (1st ed.)

Publisher Paris, Albin Michel, translated into French by Comtesse de Gencé, ill. by Carlo Chiostri, 1948

Title: Aventuras de Pinocho

Year: 1912

Publisher Madrid, Editorial Saturnino Calleja, translated into Spanish by Rafael Calleja, ill. by Carlo Chiostri

Title: Die Geschichte vom hölzernen Bengele

Year: 1913 (1st ed.)

Publisher Freiburg, Herder, translated into German by Anton Grumann, ill. by Enrico Mazzanti, 1925

Title: Pinochio

Year: 1925

Publisher Tokyo, Kaizōsha, translated into Japanese by Sato Haruo, ill. by Carlo Chiostri

Title: The Adventures of Pinocchio

Year: 1925

Publisher New York, Macmillan, translated into English by Carol Della Chiesa, ill. by Attilio Mussino

Title: Pinokio nuotykiai

Year: 1926

Publisher Kaunas, Švyturyo, translated into Lithuanian by Viktor Kamantauska, ill. by Carlo Chiostri

Title: De avonturen van Pinokkio

Year: 1927 (1st ed.)

Publisher 's-Gravenhage/Batavia [The Hague-Jakarta], G.B. van Goor Zonen's Uitgeversmaatschappij, translated into Dutch by Louise J. van Everdingen, ill. by Rie Cramer, 1949 (3rd ed.)

Title: Mu’ou qiyu ji

Year: 1928

Publisher Shanghai, Kaiming shudian, translated into Chinese by Xu Diaofu, ill. by Charles Copeland, 1928

Title: Pinokjo

Year: 1930

Publisher London, The Esperanto Publishing Company, translated into Esperanto by Mirza Marchese and L.N. Newell, ill. by W. H. Matthews

Title: Pinoqio. Qorotav shel yeled ʻetz

Year: 1931

Publisher Tel Aviv, Omanut, translated into Hebrew by Israel Dushman, ill. by Enrico Mazzanti

Title: O Pipínos, istoría enós fasoulé

Year: 1931

Publisher Athens, Níkas, translated into Neo-Greek by Vèrta Lèka, ill. by Attilio Mussino

Title: Les aventures d’en Pinotxo

Year: 1934

Publisher Barcelona, Editoril “Joventut”, translated into Catalan by Maria Sandiumenge, ill. by J. Vinyals

Title: Otesánek. Pinocchiova dobrodružství

Year: 1940

Publisher Prague, Dědictví Komenského, translated into Czech by T. Kuška, ill. by Josef Lada

Title: Pinocho. Historia de un Muñeco

Year: 1940

Publisher Buenos Aires, Editorial Cactus, translated into Spanish by A. Gregori, ill. by A.F. Tolos

Title: Nosáčkova dobrodružství

Year: 1941

Publisher Červený Kostelec, Nakladatel Doležal, translated into Czech by Otakar Kunstovný, ill. by Josef Burjanek

Title: Les Aventures de Pinocchio

Year: 1941

Publisher Grenoble - Paris, B. Arthaud, translated into French by Paul Guiton, ill. by Rob D’Ac

Title: Pinocchio

Year: 1944

Publisher Sydney, Consolidated Press Limited, translated into English by E. Harden, ill. by Finey

Title: De avonturen van Pinokkio

Year: 1946

Publisher Antwerp, L. Opdebeek, translated into Flemish by Joseph Witlox, ill. by Carlo Chiostri

Title: Pinocchio. The adventures of a little wooden boy

Year: 1946

Publisher Cleveland and New York, The World Publishing Company, translated into English by Joseph Walker, ill. By Richard Floethe

Title: Pinocchio, der Hampelmann

Year: 1947

Publisher Salzburg, Jugend Verlag, translated into German by Margot Thudichum, ill. by Hans Toscano del Banner

Title: Nosáčkove dobrodružstvá

Year: 1948

Publisher Liptovskom Mikuláši, Tranoscius, translated into Slovak by Štefan Mihal, ill. by Vincent Hložník

Title: Binukyu

Year: 1949

Publisher Cairo, Dar al-maʻarif, translated into Arabic by anonymous, ill. by Shahrazad

Title: Pinoculus

Year: 1951

Publisher Florence, Marzocco, translated into Latin by Enrico Maffacini, ill. by Enrico Mazzanti

Title: Pinocchio: čudnovati doživljaji jednog lutka

Year: 1952

Publisher Zagreb, Mladost, translated into Croatian by Vjekoslav Kaleb, ill. by Beppe Porcheddu

Title: Pinokyo. Adamak-e chubi

Year: 1955

Publisher Tehran, Ketabkhane-ye Gutemberg, translated into Persian by Ṣadeq Chubak, ill. by Richard Floethe

Title: Die avonture van Pinokkio

Year: 1956 (1st ed.)

Publisher Kaapstad-Bloemfontein-Johannesburg, Nasionale Boekhandel Beperk, translated into Afrikaans by Marie Malherbe, ill. by K. Harries, 1962

Title: Aventurat e Pinokut

Year: 1956

Publisher Prishtinë, Mustafa Bakija, translated into Albanian by Hilmi Thači, ill. by Attilio Mussino

Title: Pinokʻioyi arkacnerә. Mi buratinoyi patmutʻyun

Year: 1956

Publisher Erevan, Haypethrat, translated into Armenian by Gevorg Virapyan, ill. by Attilio Mussino

Title: Rukadaya

Year: 1957

Publisher Colombo, Gunaseta, translated into Sinhalese by S. Gunasekara, ill. by Vimala Gunasekara

Title: Mambo yaliyompata Pinokyo: hadithi ya mwanasesere

Year: 1957

Publisher Tabora, Tanganyika Mission Press, translated into Swahili by P. Serafino Bella Eros C.P., s.d.

Title: Pinoqio. Qorotav shel yeled ʻetz

Year: 1958

Publisher Tel Aviv, Masada Publishing, translated into Hebrew by Yemima Tchernovitz, ill. by Libico Maraja

Title: Pinokkio no bōken

Year: 1958

Publisher Tokyo, Iwanami shonen bunko, translated into Japanese by Sugiura Minpei, ill. by Eduard Bargheer

Title: L-Avventuri ta’ Pinokkjo

Year: 1960

Publisher Floriana, Malta Empire Press - Istitut Kattoliku, translated into Maltese by trad. Paul C. Gauci, ill. by Will Nickless

Title: Pinocchiova dobrodružství

Year: 1962

Publisher Prague, Albatros, translated into Czech by Jan and Marie Holických, ill. by Helena Zmatlíková

Title: Kaṭh’put’lā

Year: 1962

Publisher New Dehli, Shrikant Prakashan, translated into Panjabi by Rajindar Singh Ahluvalia, ill. by Brijpal Singh, Amarjit Singh

Title: Aventurile lui Pinocchio

Year: 1962

Publisher Bucarest, Editura Tineretului, translated into Romanian by Romulus Alexandrescu, ill. by Eugen Taru

Title: Priključenija Pinokkio

Year: 1965

Publisher Sofia, Narodna Mladež, translated into Russian by Emmanuil Genrikhovič Kazakevič, ill. by Libico Maraja

Title: Pinokio Piedzīvojumi

Year: 1966

Publisher Riga, Liesma, translated into Latvian by S. Ķuze, ill. by V. Alfejevskis

Title: Pinocchio

Year: 1966

Publisher Bratislava, Mladé letá, translated into Slovak by Štefan Gráf, ill. by Svetozár Králik

Title: Das Märchen vom Pinocchio

Year: 1968

Publisher Zurich, Silva-Verlag, translated into German by anonimo, ill. by Martha Pfannenschmid

Title: Pinokkio no bōken

Year: 1970

Publisher Tokyo, Fukuinkan Shoten, translated into Japanese by Andō Mikio, ill. by Usui Miyako

Title: Pinku ke kār’nāman

Year: 1972

Publisher New Delhi, Ministry of Information, translated into Hindi by Vishvanath Gupta

Title: Isariolona

Year: 1973

Publisher Fianarantsoa, Librairie Ambozontany, translated into Malagasy by Elisabeth Ravaoarivelo, ill. by Noël Razafintsalama

Title: Ostržek

Year: 1975

Publisher Ljubljana, Mladinska Knjiga, translated into Slovenian by Albert Širok, ill. by Marlenka Stupica

Title: Les Aventures de Pinocchio

Year: 1977

Publisher Paris, Souveraine Editions, translated into French by Henri Louette, ill. by Jean Reschofsky

Title: Petualangan Pinokio

Year: 1977

Publisher Jakarta, Pustaka Jaya, translated into Indonesian by Chairul Bahri

Title: Les Aventures de Pinocchio

Year: 1978

Publisher Milan, Éditions Piccoli, translated into French by Nine Charpiot andRaoul Bossuyt, ill. by Rialdo Guizzardi

Title: Pinocchio: en tredukkes merkelige opplevelser

Year: 1978

Publisher Oslo, Damm, translated into Norwegian by Anne Margrethe Konow Lund, ill. by Freda Magnussen

Title: Mu’ou qiyu ji

Year: 1980

Publisher Beijing, Waiguo wenxue chubanshe, translated into Chinese by Ren Rongrong, ill. by Enrico Mazzanti e Attilio Mussino

Title: Pinocchio. Historien om en marionetdukke

Year: 1983

Publisher Copenhagen, Gyldendals Børnebogklub, translated into Danish by Birgitte Brix, ill. by Roald Als

Title: Pinoqio

Year: 1984

Publisher Tel Aviv, Zemorah Beytan, translated into Hebrew by Miriam Padovano, ill. by Attilio Mussino

Title: Pinocchio: ehk Puunuku seiklused

Year: 1985

Publisher Tallin, Eesti Raamat, translated into Estonian by Tiina Laats, ill. by Jarõna Ilo

Title: Pinocchios Abenteuer. Die Geschichte einer Holzpuppe

Year: 1986

Publisher Stuttgart, Reclam, translated into German by Hubert Bausch, ill. by Enrico Mazzanti

Title: Pinokio

Year: 1987

Publisher Sarajevo, Svjetlost, translated into Bosnian by Razija Sarajlić, ill. by Milivoje Unković

Title: Pinokio

Year: 1990

Publisher Poznan, Oficyna Wydawnicza, translated into Polish by Zofia Jachimecka, ill. by Jan Marcin Szancer

Title: Pinokyo

Year: 1991

Publisher Istanbul, Can Yayinlari, translated into Turkish by Egemen Berköz, ill. by Carlo Chiostri

Title: As aventuras de Pinóquio

Year: 1993

Publisher Lisbon, Caminho, translated into Portuguese by José Colaço Barreiros, ill. by Manuela Bacelar

Title: Las aventuras de Pinocho

Year: 1994

Publisher Madrid, Anaya, translated into Spanish by José Golacheca, ill. by Enrico Mazzanti and Carlo Chiostri

Title: The Adventures of Pinocchio

Year: 1996

Publisher Oxford, Oxford University Press, translated into English by Ann Lawson Lucas, ill. by Enrico Mazzanti

Title: Pinokkió kalandjai

Year: 1997

Publisher Budapest, Ciceró Könyvkiadó, translated into Hungarian by Rónay György, ill. by Szecskó Tamás

Title: Priključenijata na Pinokio

Year: 1998

Publisher Sofia, Kibea, translated into Bulgarian by Peter Dragoev, ill. by Roberto Innocenti,

Title: Chú Ngu’ò’igồ

Year: 1999

Publisher Hanoi, Kim Đồng, translated into Vietnamese by Thái Hoàng Linh, without ill.

Title: Binukyu

Year: 2001

Publisher Soussa-Tunis, Dar al-maʻarif li-l-tabaʻa wa-l-nashr, translated into Arabic by Najib Al-Lajmi, ill. by anon.

Title: Pinocchio

Year: 2001

Publisher Droichead Nua Cill Dara [Newbridge, Kildare], Goldsmith, translated into Irish by Pádraig Ó Buachalla, ill. by Carlo Chiostri

Title: Pinuci

Year: 2001

Publisher Trieste, Mgs Press, translated into Trieste dialect by Nereo Zeper, ill. by José

Title: Pinokyo

Year: 2002

Publisher Istanbul, Alfa, translated into Turkish by Mustafa Öddemiş, ill. by anon.

Title: The Adventures of Pinocchio

Year: 2005

Publisher Oakland, Cal., University of California Press, translated into English by Nicolas J. Perella, ill. by Enrico Mazzanti

Title: P’inok’io

Year: 2004

Publisher Seoul, Sigongjuniŏ, translated into Korean by Kim Hongnae, ill. by Iassen Ghiuselev

Title: Pinokyo. Adamak-e chubi

Year: 2005

Publisher Tehran, Ketab-ha-ye Banafshe, translated into Persian by Moṣtafa Raḥmandust, ill. by Gioia Fiammenghi

Title: Mu’ou qiyu ji

Year: 2008

Publisher Taipei, Jing Zhong yu guoji gufen youxian gongsi, translated into Chinese by Anonimous, edited by Chen Xiuqin, ill. by Roberto Innocenti

Title: Kāṭher mānuṣ Pinokio

Year: 2009

Publisher Dhaka, Academic Press, translated into Bengali by Marino Rigon and Tarek Reza, ill. by Fiorenzo Faorzi

Title: As Aventuras de Pinóquio: História de um Boneco

Year: 2012

Publisher São Paulo, Cosac Naify, translated into Portuguese/ Brazilian by Ivo Barroso, ill. by Alex Cerveny

Title: Le avventure di Pinocchio

Year: 2012

Publisher Pesaro, Comune di Pesaro, translated into Pesaro dialect by Marcello Martinelli, ill. by Giuseppe Ballarini

Title: Petualangan Pinokio

Year: 2014

Publisher Jakarta, Gramedia Pustaka Utama, translated into Indonesian by Lulu Wijaya, ill. by Ratu Lakhsmita Indira

Title: Binukyu. Qissa dumya mutaharrika

Year: 2017

Publisher Milan, Al-Mutawassit, translated into Arabic by Yusuf Waqqas, without. ill., 2017

Title: Pinókio

Year: 2017

Publisher Athens, Psychoios, translated into Neo-Greek by Theodora Darviri, ill. by Manuela Andreani

Title: Pinokyo. Qesse-ye yek adamak-e chubi

Year: 2017

Publisher Tehran, Kargah-e film va gerafik-e Sepas, translated into Persian by Gholamreza Emami, ill. by Roberto Innocenti

Title: Pinokyo

Year: 2019

Publisher Ulaan Bataar, Mon sudar, translated into Mongolian by Ts. Oyumaa, ill. by B. Gantuul

Title: P’inok’io

Year: 2020

Publisher Seoul, Tŏk’ŭllaesik, translated into Korean by Yi Siyŏn, without. ill